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This article helps you resolve various connectivity issues to SQL server.

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Note

For a guided walk through experience of this article, see Solving Connectivity errors to lớn SQL Server.

Original sản phẩm version: sumuoi.mobi SQL ServerOriginal KB number: 4009936


Contents

A network-related or instance-specific error occurred while establishing a connection to SQL ServerNo connection could be made because the target machine actively refused itCannot Generate SSPI context error message

Prerequisite

To effectively use this troubleshooter, you may want to lớn gather the following information.

The complete text of the error message along with the error codes và whether the error is intermittent (happens only sometimes) or consistent (happens all the time).

Errorlogs from SQL vps from which you can cảnh báo the following:

Fully qualified domain name (FQDN) of the SQL hệ thống machine or in case of clustered installations, the FQDN virtual name. If you are using a named instance, chú ý down the instance name.

Note

You can tìm kiếm for “Server name is” string to get this info in the errorlog.

Network libraries và ports the SQL instance is listening on. Example messages:

Named pipes: hệ thống local connection provider is ready lớn accept connection on . TCP/IP & port number: server is listening on .

Application & System event logs from SQL Server and Client systems.

If the connections are failing from an application, the connection string from the app. These are typically found in Web.config files for ASP.NET applications.

Checklist

Ensure SQL vps is started và you see the following message in the SQL hệ thống ErrorLog:

SQL vps is now ready for client connections. This is an informational message; no user kích hoạt is required.

Verify basic connectivity over IP address and kiểm tra for any abnormalities: ping -a , ping -a . If you notice any issues, work with your network administrator to fix the same.

Check if SQL is listening on appropriate protocols by reviewing the ErrorLog.

Check if you are able lớn connect to SQL vps from other client systems & different user logins. If you are able to, then the issue could be specific khổng lồ the client or login that is experiencing the issue. Kiểm tra the Windows sự kiện logs on problematic client for additional pointers. Also kiểm tra if network drivers are up khổng lồ date.

If you are experiencing login failures, ensure the user has a login at the vps level and appropriate permissions to connect khổng lồ the database that the user is trying khổng lồ connect to.

A network-related or instance-specific error occurred while establishing a connection to lớn SQL Server

For more information about the relevant error, see the following Verify connection errors section.

Verify connection errors

The A network-related or instance-specific error occurred while establishing a connection to SQL Server error represents one or more of the following error messages:

A network-related or instance-specific error occurred while establishing a connection to SQL Server. The vps was not found or was not accessible. Verify that the instance name is correct and that SQL server is configured to allow remote connections.

provider: SQL Network Interfaces, error: 26 – Error Locating Server/Instance SpecifiedSQL hệ thống Native Client Data liên kết Error

: Login timeout expired: A network-related or instance-specific error has occurred while establishing a connection to lớn SQL Server. Server is not found or not accessible. Kiểm tra if instance name is correct and if SQL vps is configured lớn allow remote connections. For more information see SQL hệ thống Books Online.: SQL hệ thống Network Interfaces: Error Locating Server/Instance Specified .A network-related or instance-specific error occurred while establishing a connection to SQL Server. The vps was not found or was not accessible. Verify that the instance name is correct and that SQL hệ thống is configured to lớn allow remote connections.

provider: TCP Provider, error: 0A connection attempt failed because the connected buổi tiệc nhỏ did not properly respond after a period of time, or established connection failed because connected host has failed to lớn respond.sumuoi.mobi SQL Server, Error: 10060A network-related or instance-specific error occurred while establishing a connection lớn SQL Server. The server was not found or was not accessible. Verify that the instance name is correct & that SQL hệ thống is configured lớn allow remote connections.

provider: Named Pipes Provider, error:40 – Could not xuất hiện a connection lớn SQL Serversumuoi.mobi SQL Server, Error:53The network path was not found TCP Provider: No connection could be made because the target machine actively refused it. Login timeout expired A network-related or instance-specific error has occurred while establishing a connection to SQL Server. Vps is not found or not accessible. Check if instance name is correct và if SQL vps is configured to allow remote connections. For more information see SQL vps Books Online.You can start troubleshooting from this section: Common causes of various connection issues.


Common causes of various connection issues

Go through each of the causes that is applicable khổng lồ your instance below & for each of the applicable causes, try the corresponding resolutions.

Cause 1: Incorrect vps name being specified in the connection string or in the vps name dialog box

To confirm:

Ensure the vps name you are specifying the application matches what you have in the error log.

Cause 2: Incorrect alias on the client machine

Aliases are typically used in environments when you need to lớn connect to SQL vps with an alternate name or when there are name resolution issues in the network. An incorrect alias on the client machine can cause the connections from your applications lớn go to lớn the wrong hệ thống resulting in failure.

Things to lớn try:

Open SQL server Client Network Utility by typing cliconfg.exe in your Run command.

Check if there are any aliases defined for the server you are trying khổng lồ connect to.

If present, vị the following:

Click on Edit and rename the hệ thống alias. (for example, if your server name is MySQL, rename it as MySQL_test) & retry the connection. If the connection works, it is an indication that you had an incorrect alias, probably from an old configuration that is no longer needed. If you continue to experience the error, rename the alias back lớn its original name và proceed to lớn the next step.

Check the Connection parameters for the alias and ensure they are correct. Some of the common scenarios that can cause problems with connectivity are:

Incorrect IP address for the server name parameter. Ensure this IP address matches the entry in the SQL ErrorLog file.

Incorrect hệ thống name in the vps name parameter. For example though your vps alias points the correct server name, if the hệ thống name parameter has incorrect value, connections will fail.

If you are using a named pipes alias, ensure the pipe name has correct format.

For connecting to default instance named Mydefaultinstance, the pipe name should be MydefaultinstancepipesqlqueryFor connecting lớn a named instance MySQLNamed, the pipe name should be MySQLpipeMSSQL$NamedsqlqueryCause 3(Default instance): Firewall(s) between the client and server blocking the port SQL server instance is listening on

Default instance: A mặc định instance typically runs on port 1433. Some installations also use a non-standard port (other than 1433) for running SQL instances. The firewall may be blocking either of them.

Things lớn try:

Try appending the port number of SQL server to the server name using the format , portnumber and see if that works. For example, if your SQL instance name is MySQLDefaultinstance và it is running on port 2000, specify the server name as MySQLServer, 2000 và see if that works. If it does work it is an indication the firewall is blocking the port.

Cause 4(Named instance): SQL Browser is not started

Client applications connecting lớn a named instance of SQL server use the SQL Browser service on the system where SQL is running lớn enumerate the port that SQL is listening on. If the browser service is not started, the connections would fail.

Things khổng lồ try:

On the system running your SQL server instance, either use the SQL vps Configuration manager or the Services applet in Control panel & start the SQL Browser Service if it is not already started. For more information, see How to: Start và Stop the SQL server Browser Service

Cause 5(Named instance): UDP Port 1434 used by SQL browser is blocked on the network

If your SQL instance is a named instance, it may have either been configured to use dynamic ports or a static port. In either case, the underlying network libraries query SQL Browser service running on your SQL server machine via UDP port 1434 lớn enumerate the port number for the named instance. If a firewall between the client and the vps blocks this UDP port, the client library cannot determine the port (a requirement for connection) and the connection fails.

To Confirm:

Method 1:

Note down the port your SQL instance is listening on from the SQL server Errorlog.Try connecting to lớn the named instance using the port number appended khổng lồ the vps name using the format , portnumber and see if that works. If it does work it is an indication the firewall is blocking the port UDP port 1434. For example, if your SQL instance name is MySQLNamedinstance and it is running on port 3000, specify the vps name as MySQLNamedinstance, 3000 and see if that works. If it does work it could either mean that UDP port 1434 is blocked or the static port is blocked or both. Lớn confirm if it is the UDP port or the static port using Portqry from Method 2 below.

Method 2:

Things to try:

First determine if the SQL server instance is listening on dynamic vs static port & use the procedure that is relevant lớn your scenario. How lớn tell if SQL is listening on Dynamic vs Static ports, move to Tell if SQL is listening on Dynamic vs Static ports section.


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If this does not resolve your issue, move khổng lồ Still having problems section.

Configuring firewalls

If you are using a custom firewall, work with your network administrator to xuất hiện up the necessary ports.

Below you can find some quick screenshots showing the required configuration of a Windows firewall for successful connections to lớn a mặc định instance and a named instance.

A default instance of SQL vps listening on the default port 1433 on Windows 2012 R2 server. In this scenario, you need to ensure an exception is added lớn TCP port 1433 in the Windows firewall.

Open Windows firewall on the system hosting SQL server mặc định instance and click New Rule under Inbound Rules.

Select the Port option và click Next.

In the next screen:

Select TCP as the protocol.

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Select Specific local ports and specify the value as 1433 and click Next.


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In the next screen, select Allow the connection và click Next.

In the next screen, select the option that best suits your environment & click Next.

In the next screen, give the name khổng lồ your rule and provide a clear mô tả tìm kiếm for future reference & click Finish.


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Adding an exception for UDP port 1434 to enable connections to a named instance of SQL server:

Open Windows firewall on the system hosting SQL server default instance và click New Rule under Inbound Rules.

Select the Port option & click Next.

In the next screen:

Select UDP as the protocol.

Select Specific local ports và specify the value as 1434 và click Next.


*

In the next screen, select Allow the connection and click Next.

In the next screen, select the option that best suits your environment & click Next.

In the next screen, give the name khổng lồ your rule & provide a clear mô tả tìm kiếm for future reference and click Finish.


*

If this does not resolve your issue, move to Still having problems section.

Using PortqryUI tool with SQL Server

Download location: PortqryUI

Launch PortqryUI tool on your client machine. (the machine where you are having connection issues, for website apps, this could be the IIS server)Specify server name of the SQL server instance or the SQL vitutal server name in the Destination IP or FQDN to lớn query.Select Query predefined service and select SQL Service in the dropdown list.Click Query và examine the output and use the following table for additional pointers.

Type of instanceOutput from PortqryPotential causes for connection issuesWhat to try?
Default instanceTCP port 1433 (ms-sql-s service): NOT LISTENINGIndicates one of the following: SQL is not started. TCP/IP is not enabled on SQL server protocol list. SQL is listening on a non-default port. (check errorlog) Firewall between the client & the hệ thống is blocking the port.Ensure SQL is started. Check SQL error log for the port number và use that in your connection strings using the format , portnumber. Work with your network/windows administrator khổng lồ ensure the TCP port 1433 is not blocked by a firewall on the network or by the Windows firewall on the SQL server system. Note If you would lượt thích to resolve firewall issue, move khổng lồ Configuring firewalls section.
Default instanceTCP port 1433 (ms-sql-s service): LISTENING Client library is able to connect fine khổng lồ the SQL hệ thống machine but something else in the application layer could be causing the problem. Check if hệ thống name is correctly specified in the connection string. If the connection string is using the port number, it is correctly specified in the connection string. Any old aliases defined on the box.
Named instanceUDP port 1434 (ms-sql-m service): FILTEREDIndicates one of the following: SQL named instance is not started. SQL browser not started on the system hosting your SQL instance. UDP port 1434 is blocked by afirewall on the SQL hệ thống or on the network between the client & the server. Service is started. SQL browser service is started.Work with your network/windows administrator khổng lồ ensure the UDP port 1434 is not blocked by a firewall on the network or by the Windows firewall on the SQL hệ thống system. Note If you would like to resolve firewall issue, move lớn Configuring firewalls section.
Named instanceUDP port 1434 is LISTENINGClient library is able khổng lồ connect fine lớn the SQL server machine but something else in the application layer could be causing the problem. vps name is correctly specified in the connection string. Port number is incorrectly specified in the connection string. Any old aliases defined on the box.

Examples outputs:

Default instance on default port: Working scenario


For more information, move khổng lồ Configuring firewalls section.

If this does not resolve your issue, move khổng lồ Still having problems section.

Tell if SQL is listening on Dynamic vs Static ports

In SQL server Configuration Manager, in the console pane, expand SQL hệ thống Network Configuration, expand Protocols for , & then double-click TCP/IP.

In the TCP/IP Properties dialog box, on the IP Addresses tab, several IP addresses appear in the format IP1, IP2, up to lớn IPAll. One of these is for the IP address of the loopback adapter, 127.0.0.1. Additional IP addresses appear for each IP Address on the computer. (You will probably see both IP version 4 và IP version 6 addresses.) Right-click each address, và then click Properties to lớn identify the IP address that you want to configure.

If the TCP Dynamic Ports dialog box contains , it indicates that the Database Engine is listening on dynamic ports. If it contains a specific number, it means the database instance is listening on a static port.


For more information, see Configure a hệ thống to Listen on a Specific TCP Port.

If this does not resolve your issue, move to lớn Still having problems section.

No connection could be made because the target machine actively refused it

For more information about the no connection error, move to lớn The full error message section.

The full error message

You may get an error that is similar to lớn the following:

TCP Provider: No connection could be made because the target machine actively refused it.Login timeout expired.A network-related or instance-specific error has occurred while establishing a connection to lớn SQL Server. Server is not found or not accessible. Check if instance name is correct & if SQL hệ thống is configured to allow remote connections. For more information see SQL vps Books Online.You can start troubleshooting from this section: Common causes of various connection issues.

SQL hệ thống does not exist or access denied

You can start troubleshooting from this section: Common causes of various connection issues.

PivotTable Operation Failed: We cannot locate a hệ thống to load the workbook Data Model

You can start troubleshooting from this section: Common causes of various connection issues.

Cannot Generate SSPI context error message

Security support Provider Interface (SSPI) is a phối of Windows APIs that allows for delegation & mutual authentication over any generic data transport layer, such as TCP/IP sockets. Therefore, SSPI allows for a computer that is running a Windows operating system to lớn securely delegate a user security token from one computer to lớn another over any transport layer that can transmit raw bytes of data.The Cannot generate SSPI context error is generated when SSPI uses Kerberos authentication to delegate over TCP/IP & Kerberos authentication cannot complete the necessary operations khổng lồ successfully delegate the user security token khổng lồ the destination computer that is running SQL Server.

For additional information as to why the Kerberos operations cannot be completed, move khổng lồ Troubleshooting authentication failures due to Kerberos issues section to review and implement the steps.

Troubleshooting authentication failures due to lớn Kerberos issues

Kerberos authentication failures can happen due to lớn a variety of reasons. The major causes & corresponding resolutions are highlighted below:

Issue typeSuggested resolutionsSPN Issues: Missing SPNs: SPN is not registered in the Active directory. Incorrect SPN entries: SPN exists, but the port number is incorrect or it exists on a different account other than the SQL Service account.Duplicate SPNs: The same SPN exists on multiple accounts in the active directory.
Check Using Kerberos Configuration manager lớn diagnose & fix SPN and delegation issues section lớn diagnose and resolve SPN issues.Note For in-depth understanding of SPNs, Kerberos, & other related concepts đánh giá the information in the following KB article: How to troubleshoot the “Cannot generate SSPI context” error message
SQL Service accounts not trusted for delegation. If you are using Local System account, the middle server should be trusted for delegation in the active directory.UseKerberos configuration manager “s delegation tab lớn confirm và work with your Active directory administrator to enable delegation for the account. Check Using Kerberos Configuration manager to diagnose & fix SPN & delegation issues for details in the following paragraph.
Incorrect name resolution: Your hệ thống name may be resolving lớn a different IP address than that is registered by your network”s DNS server.ping -a (use -4 & -6 for IPv4 & IPv6 specifically) ping -a nslookup (type your local and remote machine name and IP address multiple times)Look for any discrepancies và mismatches on the returned results. The correctness of DNS configuration on the network is vital khổng lồ SQL connection. Wrong DNS entry could cause of all sorts of connectivity issue later.

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Firewalls or other network devices preventing connections from the client to lớn the tên miền controller: SPNs are stored in active directory và if the clients are unable to lớn communicate with the AD, the connection cannot proceed further.Check the following link for additional information: